Thursday, September 3, 2020

Article is Strengthening Frontline Nurse Investment in Organizational

Is Strengthening Frontline Nurse Investment in Organizational Goals - Article Example (2012) talks about the changing idea of human services in the nation, and how the motivating forces are connected with the better execution and cost control. So as to stay beneficial and be qualified for get better repayment subsidizing, human services associations need to center at defining explicit objectives and accomplish them so as to convey to and continue remarkable help quality for the patients. The creators, along these lines, contend this has changed into the defining up of explicit objectives for the forefront staff and how responsibility just as different components can contribute towards the advancement of increasingly drew in nursing staff to accomplish generally speaking hierarchical objectives. The paper talks about how an individual degree of responsibility can in reality further the job of medical attendants and make them significant partners in accomplishing the general targets for the firm. Study of the Paper The title of the paper recommends that it is about the guidance with respect to reinforcing the job of a forefront nursing interest in authoritative objectives. Be that as it may, it examines the job of commitment just as responsibility of the medical attendants in the evolving situation. The general subject of the article depends on the progressions occurring at the large scale level and how associations need to react to that evolving circumstance. ... The general bearing and reason for the paper is by all accounts established into the supposition that a more prominent degree of responsibility can really prompt a superior authoritative exhibition. Creators contend that it is very significant really to characterize cutting edge responsibility and afterward screen the advancement so as to learn how the bleeding edge staff is performing. Creators further propose that raising the individual stakes of the bleeding edge medical caretakers and helping them to take greater responsibility can prompt a superior generally speaking result for the associations. This changing job of medical caretakers has been seen from the point of view of the large scale level changes occurring at the legislative just as the mechanical wide level. Creators have harped on the changing job of medical caretakers and how significant they are for accomplishing money related objectives for the associations from the point of view of these changes (Marshall, 2011). Wh ile examining the writing about the responsibility, writers appear to divert from the genuine reason and subject of the article. The writing audit traces the job of responsibility in nursing and how individual just as association level responsibility fits into the general job of medical caretakers. In spite of the fact that the issue of responsibility might be pertinent somewhat, in any case, it may not be totally applicable to the general topic of the article. Creators neglect to coordinate the realities about how associations set objectives and how such objectives are changed into noteworthy advances which cutting edge nursing staff needs to take. Despite the fact that individual responsibility assumes a more noteworthy job in the vocation of medical attendants since they not just need to follow their own person

Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Abbreviations for Common Business Degrees

Shortened forms for Common Business Degrees Business degree shortened forms at times fluctuate from school to class, however most instructive establishments utilize a standard configuration. The issue is that there are a variety of truncations such huge numbers of that it very well may be difficult to make sense of what they all rely on. It can likewise be befuddling when two business degree shortened forms are fundamentally the same as, for example, the EMS (Executive Master of Science)â and EMSM (Executive Master of Science in Management). Four year certifications Four year certifications are college degrees. The Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree has to a greater degree an expansive spotlight on aesthetic sciences, while the Bachelor of Science (BS) has all the more a firmly engaged educational plan. The most widely recognized business-related four year certifications include: BA: Bachelor of ArtsBBA: Bachelor of Business Administration BPA: Bachelor of Public AdministrationBS: Bachelor of ScienceBSB: Bachelor of Science in BusinessBSBA: Bachelor of Science in Business AdministrationBSc CIS: Bachelor of Computer Information Systems ExecutiveDegrees In the business field, official degree programs are regularly planned forâ working business experts who need to propel their insight as a rule (business organization) or in a specific territory of business, for example, open organization, the executives, or tax assessment. Albeit numerous understudies in official degree programs are real administrators, not all understudies work in an administrative limit; a few understudies just have official potential. The most normal official degrees include: EMBA: Executive MBAEMIB: Executive Master if International BusinessEMPA: Executive Master of Public AdministrationEMS: Executive Master of ScienceEMSM: Executive Master of Science in ManagementEMSMOT: Executive Master of Science in Management of TechnologyEMST: Executive Master of Science in TaxationGEMBA: Global Executive Master of Business Administration Graduate degrees An experts degree is an alumni level degree that is earned in the wake of finishing undergrad level training. There are many specific bosses degrees in the business field. The most widely recognized include: IMBA: International MBAMAcc: Master of AccountancyMAIS: Master of Accounting and Information SystemsMBA: Master of Business Administration MBE: Master of Business EducationMBI: Master of Business InformaticsMBS: Master of Business StudiesMFA: Master of Fine ArtsMHR: Master of Human ResourcesMHRM: Master of Human Resources ManagementMIA: Master of International AffairsMIAS: Master of International and Area StudiesMIB: Master of International BusinessMIM: Master of International ManagementMIS: Master of Information SystemsMISM: Master of Information Systems ManagementMMIS: Master of Management Information SystemsMMR: Master of Marketing ResearchMMS: Master of Management ScienceMNO: Master of Nonprofit OrganizationsMOD: Master of Science in Organizational DevelopmentMPA: Master of Public AdministrationMPAcc: Master of Professional AccountingMPIA: Master of Public and International AffairsMPL: Master of PlanningMPP: Master of Public PolicyMRED: Master of Real Estate DevelopmentMTAX: Ma ster of Taxation Ace of Science Degrees Ace of Science degrees, otherwise called MS degrees, are graduate-level degrees with a firmly engaged track of study in a specific territory, for example, bookkeeping, money, the executives, tax collection, or land. The most widely recognized Master of Science degrees in the business field include: MSA: Master of Science in Accountancy (or Accounting)MSAIS: Master of Science in Accountancy Information SystemsMSAT: Master of Science in Accountancy, TaxationMSB: Master of Science in BusinessMSBA: Master of Science in Business AdministrationMSF: Master of Science in FinanceMSFA: Master of Science in Financial AnalysisMSFS: Master of Science in Foreign ServicesMSGFA: Master of Science in Global Financial AnalysisMSIB: Master of Science in International BusinessMSIM: Master of Science in Industrial ManagementMSIS: Master of Science in Information SystemsMSITM: Master of Science in Information Technology ManagementMSM: Master of Science in ManagementMSMOT: Master of Science in Management of TechnologyMSOD: Master of Science in Organization DevelopmentMSRE: Master of Science in Real EstateMST: Master of Science in Taxation Special cases to Standard Degree Abbreviations Albeit most business colleges utilize the truncations above, there are a few exemptions. For instance, Harvard University follows the convention of Latin degree namesâ for a portion of their undergrad and advanced educations, which implies that theâ degree shortenings look in reverse contrasted with what huge numbers of us are accustomed to finding in the U.S. Here are a couple of models: Stomach muscle: This is the name for the Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree. Stomach muscle represents artium baccalaureus.SB: This is the name for the Bachelor of Science (BS) degree. SB represents scientiae baccalaureus.AM: This is what could be compared to the Master of Arts (MA) degree. AM represents artium magister.SM: This is what could be compared to the Master of Science (MS) certificate. SM represents scientiae magister.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Critique of the article Overpopulation threatens the environment Essay

Scrutinize of the article Overpopulation undermines nature - Essay Example The creator brings to fore a grave issue that faces the cutting edge world today, by observing it in an alternate point of view. He focuses to the way that so as to continue the earth, people need to control the birthrates and make quick move with the goal that the earth is secured for every single living being, including people to endure. As per him, the best way to accomplish this goal is to abstain from creating more youngsters and he considers vasectomy as an honorable crucial the advanced man, despite the present circumstance. The article, distributed in the Opposing Viewpoints Series by Green Haven Press, manages the issue that over populace of the earth by the human species has a great deal of â€Å"far-coming to and overwhelmingly ruinous effects on numerous other creature and plant species† (Cascadia 22). The creator asserts that overpopulation decimates biodiversity on earth to such a degree, that it will get outlandish for life to continue on the planet over the lon g haul. The creator additionally contends that â€Å"The whole history of mankind is one of natural annihilation and the destruction of other species† (Cascadia 22). ... Human infringement of the earth, and the desperate outcomes that anticipate them due to over misuse of the assets, stays a subject of connecting with banters over the globe. In this situation, Cascadia endeavors to reemphasize this worry, in an offer to make his crowd take insight of the issue. The creator utilizes the proficiency gadgets of logos, poignancy, ethos and consistent misrepresentations just as measurable information, to put his point convincingly across to his crowd. The title itself, basic and exact, conveys the quintessence of the paper legitimately to the perusers. The creator at that point presents the subject, alluding to the effect of overpopulation and its exponential development, by alluding to the information of births and passings. In any significant accident such the Asian Tsunami or 9/11, the loss of life is considerably less than the birthrate in a day. By refering to insights, for example, this, the writer represents a rationale that controlling birth rate is a noteworthy worry for people so as to secure the condition whose assets are now over expended. The very rationale of the circumstance sufficiently persuades the perusers of the article about the gravity of the circumstance. Cascadia offers to the feelings of his crowd by alluding to chronicled setting of human movement to various scenes. By explicitly refering to the case of the â€Å"extinction of mega fauna† in North America as an outcome of human deluge in the territory more than 10,000 years back, the creator deftly outlines the effect unnecessary human fixation can have on the earth. Once more, the author’s adroitness in conveying the abstract components of sentiment and talk becomes clear when he alludes to the model

The Importance of Being Earnest Research Paper Example

The Importance of Being Earnest Research Paper Example The Importance of Being Earnest Paper The Importance of Being Earnest Paper when Algernon inquires as to why he has gone to the town. This shows he is untrustworthy in light of the fact that it shows he simply needs to have a ton of fun and have a good time. This statement likewise shows he is affluent and lavish on the grounds that he can clearly head out at whatever point he needs to and has the money to do as such. This connections back to the point that he is flighty supposing that he had the sole obligation of anything then he wouldnt simply have the option to go for instance in the event that he worked, at that point he would not simply have the option to find employment elsewhere. The word delight accentuates the point that the character Jack is well off, as he obviously has an extravagant way of life and the cash to bear the cost of joy. The expression what else ought to bring one anyplace? additionally recommends he is youthful and lighthearted on the grounds that he has no understanding that individuals probably won't travel for delight. He seems, by all accounts, to be living in his own little world and has no clue that others battle to discover the cash to endure and need to make a solid effort to do as such. This is a significant piece of Oscar Wildes message that the rich were very nai ve yet I will talk about this further later. Then again this statement could show he was simply unconstrained and continually searching for an experience. Rather than being paltry he is simply getting a charge out of the cash he has and benefiting as much as possible from his life. It would most likely rely upon the crowds sees on cash with respect to whether they considered Jack to be excessively indulgent or simply unconstrained. The possibility that he is flippant is really not a genuine character attribute, on the grounds that really Jack is very shrewd, and has duties since he is a gatekeeper in the nation, where he is known as Jack, to Cecily his ward. The past statement applies to this too in light of the fact that doesnt need Algernon to discover he has obligations as he may seem to be exhausting. While he is really heading out to the town for joy, he attempts to cover the reality he has a mystery life in the nation with what else ought to bring one anyplace? This goes about as a spread since Jack realizes that voyaging isnt consistently about joy however he attempts to fit in with Algernons degenerate way of life. At numerous focuses in the play Jack makes statements that make the characters he is conversing with accept he is somebody else. This is generally because of the reality he is attempting to conceal his falsehoods. There are focuses when Jack is demonstrated to be requesting. At the point when he goes to the town, in act one, he says to Algernon I basically need my cigarette case back. This demonstrates Jack to be requesting and maybe eager. The expression straightforward need suggests he is restless as this is the manner in which the line would be performed when in front of an audience. I envision that the line would be conveyed in a smart manner, and Jack would most likely look very irate or awkward. The line is short which would cause the crowd to accept that Jack is touchy and the word need adds to this. His interest is amiable yet the tone in the on-screen characters voice would part with that Jack was really baffled. In the discussion that is occurring, Algernon has perused the engraving on the cigarette case, which makes it clear that is has a place with Jack and is from Cecily. Algernon knows Jack as Ernest as this is the thing that Jack calls himself in the town. Algy additionally realizes the cigarette case has a place with Ernest so is befuddled by the engraving which conflicts with what he knows. The discussion excites doubt with Algy thus he begins addressing Jack (or Ernest as he is known to Algernon now). The statement connects to this in light of the fact that as opposed to having a touchiness, he could have seemed restless on the grounds that he was on edge about being discovered. The on-screen character could show this by being nervous and looking awkward with the circumstance. This bodes well since Jack is content with the manner in which he has two lives, one in the town and one in the nation and as no-body likes to be misled, Algernon and Jack would presumably wend up having a battle, and things would most likely need to change or Algernon would need to meet Cecily and everything would get confounding, so Jack didnt need him to discover. If so the word essentially would be Jack attempting to cover the reality he was extremely restless to recover his cigarette case without Algy finding the untruths and him attempting to sound as easygoing and quiet as could reasonably be expected. All through the play, he is cagey about the mysteries and until the end, there are still things being found. Oscar Wilde once in a while gives the characters lines that simply sparkle the thought with the crowd that they are lying. Toward the starting Jack says Eh? Shropshire? Indeed obviously! This gives Jack is lying about where he has been and where his home in the nation it since he sounds befuddled. He is reluctant in the first place, similar to he is uncertain of what he is discussing, despite the fact that, he ought certainly. The question marks show the entertainer would go up toward the finish of the words, to make it understood it is an inquiry. The entertainer would likewise most likely have a befuddled face, while he ponders what is being said. Jack in the wake of parting with somewhat that he was lying attempts to backpedal on himself, and spread it up by saying Yes, obviously, as though he knew from the start. This is an unobtrusive impact utilized by Wilde, which just triggers the inclination he is being deceptive with the crowd. Starting here they are then bound to get on different occasions when he is lying, which adds to the two his character and the storyline. Narcissistic is a word that could be utilized to depict huge numbers of the characters however Jack certainly has this trademark. Wilde makes all the characters egotistical and vain, which is a great deal of the motivation behind why the play is a parody. It adds to the funniness since they are just keen on their own lives, so wind up conflicting on the grounds that they can't comprehend others. Wilde demonstrates Jack to have this quality with the line It is excruciating for me to be compelled to talk reality. He doesnt acknowledge how much his lying may agitate individuals and hasnt contemplated the outcomes. All he needs is joy for him and this connections back to the point that he is requesting in light of the fact that he doesnt comprehend that others may have their own interests. He has been lying yet he doesnt consider how this will influence others exactly how excruciating it is for him. It seems as though he doesnt understand that the falsehoods may hurt others yet he comprehends that it isn't right since he is humiliated about letting them know. He doesnt need to concede he has lied since he enjoys the circumstance he is in despite the fact that it is tricky. At specific focuses he can be extremely deceptive. He says to Algernon my dear individual the sooner you surrender this senseless gibberish the better about his lying and having a twofold character. This is tricky in light of the fact that Jack additionally has another character and personality however this is the thing that he is telling Algy off for! The reality he considers it senseless hogwash shows that he perceives that what he is doing is somewhat inept and youthful however this doesnt influence his activities since he is profiting by having two personalities since he can escape things he doesnt need to do. Jack additionally gives off an impression of being sentimental all through the play. He cherishes Gwendolen and need intrigue both her and her mom; who wont allow them to wed. In the principal demonstration he shows up sentimental when he concedes his adoration to Gwendolen. The character has the line, I have never cherished anybody on the planet aside from you. He sounds extremely enchanting and this line is probably going to amaze and intrigue Gwendolen. In front of an audience this would likely be a serious and enthusiastic scene. Gwendolen and Jack are having this mystery discussion while Lady Bracknell (Gwendolens mother), is in the other room, so it could be very hurried or panicky. Later in act one he calls her My own dear which shows he is friendly, however conceivable somewhat possessive. The reality he calls her sweetheart shows he is warm and venerating of her since it is a natural pet-name. He says my own which is the part that makes him sound possessive since it seems like she is a belonging; an item instead of a lady. This could mean the character is controlling and perhaps tenacious. He needs others to know Gwendolen is with him and it could be pride or it could be desire and control. Towards the finish of the play, in act 3, Gwendolen says I am locked in to be hitched to Mr. Worthing. This statement makes Jack (Mr. Worthing) has all the earmarks of being sentimental on the grounds that the couple have remained together through the activity in the play up until now, despite the fact that they have had resistance. They are as yet genuine about one another, and love each other despite the fact that their relationship was disapproved of and tested by the profoundly regarded Lady Bracknell. She was a serious savage character so it makes it almost certain that Jack and Gwendolen are really enamored, in light of the fact that they are in an informal and nonstandard relationship (as a result of the manner in which they got together), thus ought to most likely not be together however even with Lady Bracknell compelling them to separate they havent. Their relationship is irregular in light of the fact that in that time, on the off chance that you needed to wed a lady you went to her folks first yet Jack didnt do this, he went directly to Gwendolen, which probably infuriated Lady Bracknell as she would have felt defensive towards Gwendolen. This demonstrates Jack is sentimental on the grounds that he should have truly adored Gwendolen, or if nothing else truly needed to be with her since Lady Bracknell was exceptionally ground-breaking and what he was doing, she objected to and could have likely taken care of. Anyway at long last Lady Bracknell intervenes, yet Jack despite everything fights by not permitting Cecily to wed Algernon, Lady Bracknells nephew. This shows a narrow minded side of Jack; he is halting somebody elses relationship since he cannot have his own specific manner. This connections back to the possibility that he was narcissistic provided that he was magnanimous than he would let Cecily and Algernon be together on the grounds that that would make them h

Friday, August 21, 2020

Transition temperatures in toughness Research Paper

Progress temperatures in strength - Research Paper Example This technique utilizes the deficiency size, just as highlights, constituent geometry, stacking situation and the substance property known as crack strength to ascertain the limit of a constituent containing a shortcoming to contradict break (Metallurgical Society of AIME, 2005). Tests having regular extents yet divergent complete size bring into being different gauges for KI. This comes about on the grounds that the weight states bordering to the issue changes with the example thickness (B) fully expecting the broadness outperforming some basic estimation. When the expansiveness outperforms the basic estimation, the estimation of KI ends up being similarly unvarying and KIC , is an exact material resource which is known as the plane-strain break sturdiness. The alliance in the midst of stress quality, KI, and crack durability, KIC, is tantamount to the connection in the midst of weight and tractable weight. The pressure quality, KI, epitomizes the tallness of â€Å"pressure† at the highest point of the split, just as the crack unpleasantness, KIC, is the most extreme estimation of weight quality that a substance under exact conditions that is plane-strain, that a substance can shoulder up without burst. As the pressure quality factor gets to the KIC esteem, temperamental crack happens. Likewise with a substance’s other mechanized properties, KIC is normally detailed inside reference books, just as different sources (American Society for Testing and Materials, 2006).  When a substance with a crack is stacked in pressure, the materials develop plastic strains as the surrender pressure is outperformed in the region close to the break tip. Substance inside the break tip pressure field, found near an open surface, can mutilate digressively that is in the z-way of the portrayal since there can't exist any burdens standard to the open surface. The state of pressure is slanted to biaxial, just as the substance break in a particular flexible manner, wi th a 45o cut off lip being made at each open surface. This circumstance is known as â€Å"plane-stress moreover it happens in similarly fit bodies where the weight through the expansiveness can't vary altogether in light of the slim section (Metallurgical Society of AIME, 2005). Then again, substance away from the open surfaces of a nearly thick constituent isn't freed to contort digressively in light of the fact that the abutting material restrains it. The pressure circumstance under these conditions is slanted to triaxial moreover, there is zero strain at a 90-degree point to both the pressure pivot and the direction of break transmission when a substance is stacked in pressure. This structure is known as â€Å"plane-strain† and is organized inside thick plates. Underneath plane-strain conditions, substances carry on in a general sense, versatile pending the crack pressure showing up at and afterward quick break happens. Given that slight or no plastic distorting is notice d, this structure burst is alluded to as delicate breakage (Smith, Temenoff and Gall, 2009) . When completing a crack strength test, the most across the board test plans are the single outskirts indent twist (SENB), just as the reduced pressure (CT)

Friday, August 14, 2020

Mayors of NYC and London on Campus Today COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog

Mayors of NYC and London on Campus Today COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog Today SIPA students have the opportunity to hear from the Mayors of both NYC and London.   As part of the World Leaders Forum the following event is taking place today on campus. THINKING BIG New York and London: Heading Back to the Top Date: September 15, 2009 from 8:30 AM to 12:30 PM Location: Rotunda, Low Memorial Library This program, featuring Mayors Michael Bloomberg of New York and Boris Johnson of London, is the keystone of a three-day conference in New York planned as the kickoff for continuing discussion between these two great cities.   During the conference and beyond, invited participants will focus on major issues facing New York and London: the future of their financial sectors, the diversification of their economies, building and maintaining their capital plants, and expanding housing affordability. Presented by: The Center for Rethinking Development at the Manhattan Institute The Center for Urban Innovation at the Regional Plan Association The School of International and Public Affairs Global Mayors Forum Columbia University World Leaders Forum

Sunday, June 21, 2020

Good to Great, by Jim Collins - Free Essay Example

Good to Great: Critically Summarize In Good to Great, by Jim Collins, a number of distinctions are drawn between what distinguishes a good company from a great company. Utilising a research team to do systemic quantitative and qualitative research of thousands of companies, the books intention is to identify exactly how good companies become great and outperform other companies in their specific business sector progressively and consistently. His team underwent a rigorous process of constantly interrogating and questioning certain hypotheses in order to expunge the main themes and trends behind what makes a great company, and, using a series of colourful anecdotes and metaphors, attempts to highlight exactly what companies need to do in order to be great. He looks specifically at 11 companies that, in terms of outperforming their competitors on a consistent and regular basis, are great companies. It is a surprising set of choices, but based entirely on objective analys is based on growth rates and wealth in comparison to competing companies in a similar market. He looks at Abbott Laboratories, which outperformed other companies in a similar field at a rate of 4 to 1, Fannie Mae, which outperformed other companies at 7.56 to 1, Gillette at 7.39 to 1, Kimberly-Clark at 3.42 to 1, Kroger at 4.17 times the market, Nucor at 5.16, Phillip Norris at 7.06, Pitney Bowes at 7.16, Walgreens at 7.36, Wells Fargo at 3.99, and finally, Circuit City, which outperformed the market at a rate of 18.5 to 1. Thus, by distinguishing the great companies and analysing them in a systemic and rigorous way, Collins hoped to dissect exactly what patterns emerged and how these companies correlate in their business models and philosophies, reaching conclusions about how the company ends up not only being great, but also being consistently great over a period of decades. The book acts as a prequel to Jim Collins other book, Built to Last, which he touches on in this work. H e argues that a company that is solely built around the machinations of one, egotistic leader may boost revenues for a company temporarily, but that doesnt necessarily guarantee that the company itself is a great company. Although this is contentious, he argues that a great company can survive any number of changes to its personnel, because the people who work for the companies in question, are screened as the right people. There have been many instances of a company that has folded due to the resignation or (at times) the deliberate sabotage of a company prior to the departure of a big CEO. The companies that he distinguishes as great dont have leaders of this ilk, but instead have a complete business policy and strategy built around Jim Collins carefully and systemically accrued theories about how to make a company great and for it to remain so. In searching for this, he talks about Level 5 leaders, who, he argues, unlike the egotistical and self-serving bosses that tend to grab t he limelight, are modest, even shy individuals who rarely get the attention that they deserve or even want. He also talks about companies that have emerged from a crisis. Gillette, Fannie May, and Kimberly-Clark were previously seen as struggling companies but managed to change things by, Collins argues, a combination of great leadership, defined and logical goals, which Collins elaborates by using a number of metaphors involving the three circles, the hedgehog concept, and the flywheel. By using these metaphors, Collins manages to explain a complex business situation in the simplest of terms. The hedgehog concept is about looking for what the company is best at doing, and sticking to that in a disciplined way. The three intersecting circles are elaborated as follows: What you can be the best in the world at, What economic denominator best drives your economic engine, and finally, what you are deeply passionate about. When this is combined with other factors, such as the employment of the right people, the appropriate use of technology, and in working towards specific and achievable factors for success, Collins argues that the traditional difficulties associated with managing and making a great company dissipate. First, Collins argues that it is not simply the case that the people make a business successful, but more that the right people make a business successful. In it, he uses the example of the steel company, Nucor. With Nucor, the company spent a great deal of time hiring and firing the workers based on their abilities to produce steel, in the end whittling down the workforce and upping the wages, making Nucor one of the most prestigious steel companies to work for. Thus, the people themselves arent important, but the employment of the right people are. He extends this philosophy to leadership. He argues the case for something he terms the Level 5 leader. The Level 5 leader has a combination of specific traits that make them great. It exists in a hier archy of capabilities. Level 1 is being a highly competent individual. Level 2 is being a team player. Level 3 is being a competent manager. Level 4 is to be an effective leader. Fully developed Level 5 leaders combine all four levels, and more. The level 5 leader has the ability to be both selfless and ruthless, and gives him/herself entirely to making the company a success, with little regard for personal acclaim. He argues that a great leader is one who combines deep personal humility with intense professional will. He draws the example of Darwin Smith from Kimberly-Clark. He suggests that his selfless channelling of his ego and his ambition led to the creation of the Kimberly-Clark empire. Upon receiving the post of CEO in the failing company, Darwin Smith made the decision to sell the paper mills upon which Kimberly-Clark were solely dependent on, in order to branch out into the service sector. Collins argues that this courageous act, along with the hiring and firing of the rig ht people, who showed a total commitment to the company, epitomises what makes a Level 5 Leader. Indeed, most of the companies he turns to have had grave problems in the past and have emerged due to, Collins believes, the abilities of the CEOs of the companies. However, he makes the distinction between what makes a great CEO and what the standard media perceive as a great CEO. The CEOs of all of the companies listed are relatively unknown to the mainstream press. When the manager of Gillette was printed on the front of the New York Times holding a giant razor and looking like a Greek God, he had a heart attack and died instantly. Collins distinguishes these people from the traditional CEO because, he suggests, they retain a modesty, yet a steeliness and an iron resolve, coupled with a total commitment to the company they work for. He argues that enormous salaries and changing personnel seem relatively irrelevant because there is no correlation between high pay for executives, and su ccessful companies. In a world of executive egos and big-shots, the symbol of the CEO as a bastion of sensibility and self-deprecation, even shyness, seems incongruous, but Collins, through systemic analysis of these eleven companies, identifies each of the CEOs as, what he calls, Level 5 leaders. However, the term Level 5 leader remains vague, only pulled together by a series of fairly loose concepts about selflessness and virtue, combined with a ruthless and commanding commitment to the values of the company and of being a success. Collins also utilises another term, which he coins The Stockdale Paradox. It is simply a personality duality that occurs in the mindset of great companies, which focuses on first, a stark realisation of the problems in hand, with an, at times, brutal realisation that the company is doing something gravely wrong, and has to change radically in order to succeed in becoming great. Secondly, it is a stoicism and an unwavering faith in the companies eventual success. This is a powerful concept, and together, confidence and self-scrutiny combine to make a great company. However, this argument is not without its flaws, and the woolliness of the terminology is often to the detriment of Collins ideas. Arguably, anybody could see themselves as a level 5 leader, because conceptually, it remains very vague and dependent on personality and subjective reflection on a persons character traits. Also, the Stockdale Paradox could be equally attributed to companies that dont become successful, or indeed, remains vague enough to be attributed to almost anything. All of the other arguments Collins elaborates upon stem from this initial hiring and firing of the right people, until a skeleton stock of people who are totally committed to the company emerge, and subsequently form an integral part in the success of the company. Salaries, stock value, rate of growth and other tangible factors to determine a company remain a footnote when compared to the concept of hiring the right people. Unfortunately, Collins fails to distinguish exactly who the right people are. It can easily be argued that a company will try to hire the right person for the job, because it would be logical to do so. By bypassing tangible, solid statistical results for conjecture and certain, uneasily defined personality traits, the flaw in Collins argument so far becomes apparent. The book then focuses on how a company succeeds, and, he argues, this is dependent on looking starkly at the brutal facts, but never losing track of the goal in mind. Level 5 leaders embody this characteristic, because, as well as possessing a total, passionate commitment to the company, they are also self-deprecating and humble, and, whenever something with the company is wrong, they see themselves as personally accountable for the problem. Secondly, Collins talks in detail about what he calls The Hedgehog Concept. Drawing distinction between a hedgehog and a fox, he argues that w hile the fox scurries around, constantly and listlessly searching for a purpose, the hedgehog is defined by its concept. This is elaborated by his three intersecting circles, in which he suggests that a company needs to have a defined, solid, and simple aim in order to succeed and become a great company. The Hedgehog Concept is achieved when this aim is identified and can, he argues, take many years. The three circles state the following. The first concept is to define what the company can be the best in the world at. In this, the example of Wells Fargo is drawn upon to elaborate the metaphor. Wells Fargo is a financial services company, who faced great competition from other banks in the International sector. By identifying what the company could be best at, which was focussing purely on becoming the best bank in West America, the first objective of The Hedgehog Concept was achieved. Secondly, it is important for the company to remain profitable. Cashflow, Collins argues, is also a n important concept, and, the defined aim has to take this into account. Thirdly, the company has to determine exactly what it is passionate about. For instance, Collins argues that Wells Fargo, by identifying a goal, meant that the right people occupying the various roles were also deeply passionate about becoming the best in that particular market. He argues that, by facing up to their inability to be successful in certain fields, and by limiting the company aim to a single, easily identifiable trait, then the company was automatically driven by a passion to achieve that goal. Like Kimberly-Clarks selling of the paper mills that, until then provided a staple for the rest of the company, and by focussing instead entirely on becoming the best and most recognised producer of paper-based products in the Western world, that the company were no longer divided on a number of fronts, and that the raison detre of the company was subsequently restored, via the identification of the three ci rcles and of the fulfilment of The Hedgehog Concept. Thirdly, Collins talks about disciplined action, which again focuses on refining and boiling down the aims of the company into a tangible and easily identifiable goal, and achieving that goal in a systemic and procedural manner. In this section, he uses the metaphor of a flywheel. If the flywheel is constantly pushing in different directions, then the original intentions of the company are underwhelmed. He suggests that the so-called overnight success stories arent so much empires built in a day, but are instead due to the slow, systemic hard work and effort that was initially put into both establishing an easily identifiable and plausible goal for the company, and sticking to that goal persistently and succinctly. With this, Collins draws an analogy to an egg. The egg sits there, doing nothing for years and years, and nobody takes notice of the egg until it hatches, and suddenly it is seen as an overnight success. Also, the me taphor of the flywheel is used as the device that gathers momentum gradually over a period of years. He argues that the stock-market and its inherent short-termism doesnt necessarily equate to the impossibility of defining long-term goals in the company. Moreover, he believes that growth should occur naturally, and when feasible. He equates this to Walmart, and the gradual process of building a profitable set of stores, using distinct and achievable aims, and pushing consistently on the flywheel and allowing all personnel in the company to push in the right direction and with equal passion and veracity, were a hallmark of the astonishing success of the Walmart empire. Technology, he argues, in the great companies that Collins managed to distinguish from the other companies that remained merely good, is used primarily in order to achieve something else, and is never used as an end in itself. It is unfortunate, he suggests, that companies tend to utilise technology in the sense tha t it will offer them solutions to a problem that will remain afterwards. In a survey done of the 11 companies classified as great, Collins asked them what the five main contributory factors for their success were, and only one of the eleven companies even mentioned technology as a key factor in becoming successful. The success of a business depends on the implementation of the right technology at the right time. In order for the company to succeed, technology cannot simply be implemented, but must be used with a distinct purpose in mind. Pioneers, he argues, in various technologies, very rarely become great companies. On the contrary, many listless companies who jump in at the deep end of the technological pool end up sinking. So, Collins argues that technology is important for the success of the company, but only as a secondary means for promoting the primary aim, as identified by The Hedgehog Concept. In this section, Collins looks at Gillette, and at how they implemented Internet technology into their company, arguing that technology accelerates getting to the goal a company sets (or the glibly titled BHAG, an acronym for Big Hairy Audacious Goal) but doesnt actually define a purpose for the company. That is the job of the personnel of the company. Overall, Good to Great offers a few interesting glimpses into what makes a good company into a great company, and then has a sustained period of growth that can last for decades. The conceptual framework Collins draws from the months of painstaking research into the companies involved certainly cannot be criticised based on the rigour with which they got to their conclusions. However, the book remains problematic, insofar as it tends to cross the threshold between what is essentially a scientific, business studies manual, documenting with scientific and objective precision what exactly the quantifiable elements of what makes a company great, and a self-help book. The numerous concepts that are expounded and el aborated upon in grand, metaphorical detail dont exactly contain the specificity of what exactly makes a good company. For instance, as a primary means, Collins argues that the right people make the company great. Although this seems obvious, it fails to help or assist anybody trying to make their companies great themselves, simply because the concept behind it is too vague. Also, the level 5 leader, as being an embodiment of the characteristics of the previous four levels on the hierarchy, is also sweeping in its vagueness. Collins describes the level 5 leader as self-effacing, but also stern and resilient under pressure. Although some distinction is drawn between these companies with the level 5 leaders in charge, and other companies with egotistical leaders in charge, that tend to implode following the resignation of the leader, it fails to draw comparisons with companies that may have these kinds of level 5 leaders, or could certainly be described as such, but for some reason, s till fail to succeed. The analysis, by concentrating on a handful of companies in a qualitative analysis, drawing upon a single comparison company, fails to be convincing in its delivery. Although a great deal of analysis was done, the comparative analysis in the book remains insubstantial. The concepts that are sketched out in the book are nicely and elegantly drawn out with extended metaphors and examples, but, conceptually and terminologically, the book lacks a certain depth of analysis to prove the points. Also, the points made about employing the right people, and about having a level 5 leader fail to eschew the vagueness of a self-help manual. Overall, however flawed the book may be, the concepts elaborated upon in turn shed light upon and helps to purge the ghosts of certain myths about exactly what makes a great company great.